FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT EVALUATION – TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

 

A rubric is an authentic assessment tool used to measure a student's work. It helps teachers to evaluate a student's performance based on a full range of criteria rather than a single score got from the written examination. A rubric is a working guide for students and teachers and the criteria should be shared with the students, ahead of assessment, to let them know how their work/performance will be assessed. It is used in formative assessments and makes the teaching-learning process more interesting and effective at the same time. These assessments give immediate feedback to the teachers. They are learner-centred activities and help students of varied intellectual capacity.
The FA rubrics section given in this book will help the teachers assess every student objectively and consistently and reduce their burden considerably.The section provides teachers with

  • clear guidelines to assess the students
  • grids with criteria and rating scale
  • guidelines to use the grid
  • basic activity for assessment
  • specific note related to the activity
  • a sample FA
  • a sample assessment sheet of a student

GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS TO USE THE FA GRID

Note: The italicised words in each grid help the teacher to decide on why the student should be given 5 and not 4 and vice versa.

1. Group Discussion

1. Decide on topics well ahead and give students time to research on the topic. 2. Divide students into groups of six. 3. Give each group time to prepare before the GD. 4. While one group presents, ensure that the other groups observe. 5. The students have to take up roles. The initiator, the member who starts the group discussion, gives right direction to it and should be very sure of the topic. The moderator guides through the GD and ensures a balance among the members. The members should neither be aggressive/dominative nor submissive/quiet. The summariser sums up the valid points discussed by the group. 6. Give feedback after discussion by every group. 7. Do not assess them on grammar as long as they are understandable. 8. Check if they listen actively and ensure equal participation.
Functional Language for GD to be put up on the board/chart
Agreeing: I totally agree with you/I think you're right up to a point/I'm with you on …
Disagreeing: I quite disagree with you there/I'm sorry, but I don't agree at all/Do you really think so?
Interrupting: Sorry to interrupt, but…/May I interrupt you for a moment?/Can I just say something here?
Asking for opinions: So what do you think of.../How do you feel about this/that?/What is your view/position on…?/Do you agree with/to...?/Would you like to add anything…?
Giving opinions: In my opinion/view…/I think/feel…/As I see it…/To my mind….

2. Reading Aloud

Note to Teacher: 1.Select an age appropriate passage/text, preferably a short story. 2. Position the student in a comfortable place in front of the class. 3. Ask students not to cover their face with the script. 4. Allow students to scan the script to get a sense of its content before reading aloud. 5. If it is middle school, encourage them to use a dictionary with pronunciation. 6. Ask them to read at a moderate pace, not too fast. 7. Ask them to make their reading expressive and ask them to change their voice if it is in a dialogue form. 8. You may even have two students alternate reading.

3. Comprehension HOTS

Use A for a Written Assessment and B for an Oral Assessment (refer to grid 3).

4. Writing

1. Instruct students to divide the content into more than one paragraph with relevant topic sentences. 2. Tell them a diary entry should have the date and time.

5. Vocabulary

Primary level: Shuffle some word cards and place them on the table/write a few words on the board. Give students some time to read the words. Shuffle them again and place them on the table/write on the board. Read out the meaning of a word. The student has to take out the right card/s/circle the right word/s on the board. Ensure that the difficulty level is the same for all the words selected. You may either use the words in the text or extend the activity beyond the text. You may decide to give different sets of words to different students.
Middle school level: Continue the activity after students identify the words. Let them make a sentence with the words given. Even identifying the part of speech could be a part of the assessment. You may give five words to frame sentences.

6. Listening

Select the relevant criteria from 1–4 depending on the listening passage 1. For specific information/finding context/ reading between the lines 2. Skimming to get the main idea 3. Finding meanings/synonyms from context 4. General questions to check understanding of spoken language

7. Debate

1. Brainstorm the previous day or two days ahead to decide on the topic. 2. Help students to relax on the day of debate and tell them it is a learning process. 3. Give time for the groups to prepare. 4. Let them identify the speakers and the content for them. 5. Decide on the time limit for each speaker (30 seconds–60 seconds). 6. Tell them this is not a group discussion and ask them not to interrupt the speakers, even politely. 7. Tell them they have to listen carefully to others' argument and take notes if needed. 8. You take the role of the moderator. 9. Ask students to compare their knowledge of the topic before and after the debate.

8. Speech

Give students a day at home or at least a few hours in the library to research and prepare their speech. Give students age-appropriate interesting topics. Let them prepare and come as they might find it difficult if they are extempore speeches. Stand beside them and encourage the timid ones.

9. Grammar Activities and Assessment Rubrics

Decide on the grammar concept you want to use for assessment. Make a grid as given (refer to grid 9). Each sentence should have an equal number of words. Ask students to arrange the scrambled sentences from the grid. Customise the activity according to your class level—class 1 is very simple while class 8 is a little complex. You may either give this as a worksheet or draw the grid and write on the board.

10. Role play

1. Make your students feel comfortable before the role play as this will build up their confidence. 2. Give them only the role plays which would involve the structures and vocabulary they have learnt earlier. 3. If students perform well, move on to the next level. 4. And if most of the students struggle, find corrective measures by adapting the role play suitable to their level or by changing the topic. 4. Tell them to focus on pronunciation, acting and creativity.

11. Project/Poster Making

The grid is self-explanatory.

12. Letter/Email Writing

The grid is self-explanatory.

 
 

Sample FA – Role play

Find below a sample of how to assess a role play 'Taking messages over the phone'.

Role play Context: Taking Messages

The students' marks are given next to the indicative sentences. This is only a sample and teachers should
customise their rating scale according to the situation given.

May I please speak to Mala?
I'm afraid she's not here right now. May I take a message/Do you want to leave a message?

5

Can I talk to Mala now?
Sorry, she is not here. Any message for her?

4

Is Mala there?
No she is not there. Do you want to tell something?

3

Mala is there?
No

2

You know where is Mala?
No. She gone out.

1
 

SAMPLE ROLE PLAY ASSESSMENT SHEET OF A STUDENT

 
Criteria for assessment/Marks 5 4 3 2 1 Marks
Understanding the given context clearly understands situation, sets the context understands situation but directly gets into role play without setting the context understands the situation takes cue from the partner before initiating understands the situation with a little difficulty, struggles to find ideas does not understand/finds it very difficult to understand the context, needs help 4
Presentation of the role uses specific words and expressions suitable to the context uses appropriate words and expressions, but not very specific uses general words and expressions not very specific to the situation words and expressions are not always appropriate to the situation uses inappropriate words and expressions, gropes for words 3
Body Language/non- verbal clues impresses with confidence and highly appropriate gestures, makes eye contact always confident and competent in using gestures, makes eye contact confident mostly, uses gestures which are acceptable not always confident, uses very limited non-verbal clues lacks confidence, does not use verbal clues or uses wrong ones 3
Language flawless appropriate language with excellent pronunciation very good language, no language errors, good pronunciation no noticeable errors but not flawless; pronunciation understood by all a few noticeable errors, has mother tongue influence in pronunciation makes quite a lot of errors in language, pronunciation is not easily understood 4
 

The grid with boldfaced, highlighted rubrics is the sample assessment of a student. The words in bold are a student's marks in relation to the parameter given. Add the marks obtained by him/her in every category to get his/her marks and record the student's grade accordingly.

The student gets 4+3+3+4 = 14/20 or 7/10

 

1. GROUP DISCUSSION

 
Criteria for assessment/Marks 5 4 3 2 1
Content knowledge and Focus researched extensively, focussed on topic always shows evidence of research, mostly focussed on topic researched but not in depth, tends to digress from topic done minimal research, digresses from topic mostly not done research, lacks focus on topic
Clarity of thought and Organisation of ideas organises ideas in a logical sequence, supports with details and examples, assertive but not aggressive, draws others into discussion organises ideas in a logical sequence, supports with details and examples mostly, assertive but not always organises ideas logically, but fails to support with details/examples sometimes, not very assertive does not organise ideas logically, but expresses them, fails to give details/examples unable to follow a logical flow in thought process and expression
Body language/non- verbal clues displays confidence, uses appropriate gestures, makes eye contact always confident, uses right gestures mostly, makes eye contact confident mostly, uses gestures which are acceptable if not highly appropriate not always confident, uses very limited non-verbal clues lacks confidence, does not use non-verbal clues or uses wrong ones
Use of functional language uses formal functional language to agree, disagree and moderate always uses functional language to agree and disagree mostly polite but does not use functional language uses very informal language in conversational style language used is inappropriate to GD and the situation
 

2. READING ALOUD

 
Criteria for assessment/Marks 5 4 3 2 1
Fluency groups words together logically, brings out the meaning of the text very well, pauses enhance meaning groups words together logically, brings out the meaning of the text, pauses at appropriate places groups words randomly, but manages to convey the meaning, pauses are missing/at wrong places at times reads word by word on many occasions, needs help with many words reads word by word with difficulty, needs help with most of the words
Articulation/Expression of words in speech articulates every word clearly without interfering with the grouping, follows text punctuation exactly, uses right intonation articulates every word clearly and is understood by all, does not always show the punctuation in the text by intonation articulates most of the words but grouping changes, there is little change in voice modulation articulates some words reasonably well, but mumbles some, speaks in monotone mostly speaks in monotone always, listeners find it difficult to understand
Volume/Pace voice is audible to all but not very loud, uses the right pace voice is loud and reaches all, paces well voice is not uniform, pace changes at times voice is too loud/too soft, pacing falters voice is inaudible, unable to read many words
Pronunciation excellent pronunciation showing even subtle changes in sounds good pronunciation with no detectable errors pronunciation understood by all although with errors has mother tongue influence in pronunciation pronunciation is not easily understood
 

3. COMPREHENSION HOTS

 
Criteria for assessment/Marks 5 4 3 2 1
Content understanding and Interpretation understood beyond the text, shown evidence of it, justified opinions understood the text very well, justified opinions mostly understood just the text, sometimes justified opinions. understood the text at the basic level, unable justify opinions not understood the text, no opinions offered
Detail answers include all the necessary details with supporting evidence from the text for every detail answers include all the necessary details supported by some evidence from the text answers include many details with no/very little supporting evidence from the text answers have many details missing with no supporting evidence from the book answers grossly lack in detail, even basic details are missing
Clarity answers are clear with no extra sentences, apt vocabulary answers are clear, more/less sentences than needed, good vocabulary answers are understandable, not to the point at times answers are just understandable answers could be understood only after great difficulty
A. Language – Spelling and Grammar no errors in spelling or grammar, used complex structures with ease no errors in spelling or grammar, not comfortable with complex structures no noticeable errors in spelling and grammar noticeable errors even in simple words and sentences has many errors in spelling and grammar
B. Language – Oral Communication communicates confidently, logically and precisely in a flawless language communicates confidently, takes a little time to arrange ideas logically communicates with reasonable confidence with little help manages to communicate with help, should work on building confidence even with help finds it difficult to communicate confidently
 

4. WRITING

 
Criteria for assessment/Marks 5 4 3 2 1
Content/Focus closely related to the topic, reader learns more on the topic, never once lost focus closely related to the topic, limited extra information, focus wanders once or twice within the topic related to the topic, reader does not learn much on topic, focus wanders in many places related loosely to the topic, reader does not learn anything new, focus is lost mostly no attempt is made to relate to the given topic, not at all focussed
Format/Organisation clearly arranged in paragraphs with main ideas and topic sentences; ideas are logically sequenced clearly arranged in paragraphs with logical sequencing of ideas arranged in paragraphs which at times are not divided properly not divided into paragraphs, ideas are not logically sequenced followed no proper format, ideas flow haphazardly
Creativity creative details add to the reader's enjoyment, used imagination keeping intact the main idea creative in details, used imagination keeping the main idea, but more like an answer to a question a few creative details, distracting from text, like an answer to a question with some irrelevant details shown very little evidence of creativity, like an answer to a question without details no authentic creative details added to the text; does not even read as an answer to the question
Grammar and Spelling flawless language with no errors errors only in difficult grammar areas and spelling noticeable errors in grammar and spelling mistakes in simple grammar areas and spelling mistakes affect flow and understandability
 

5. VOCABULARY

 
Criteria for assessment/Marks 5 4 3 2 1
Comprehension able to read the words, shows familiarity, knows the meaning of all, instantly identifies the word able to read the words, shows familiarity with most words, knows the meaning of many, guesses the meaning of others able to read the words, shows familiarity with a few, guesses the meaning of some, takes time to identify some more able to read some words, doesn't show familiarity, picks out the word after some attempts reads the words with difficulty, cannot find the words, needs help
Application and Creation (framing sentences with the words given) able to make a sentence/s immediately without hesitation, every sentence is flawless and brings out the meaning of the word, handles complex sentence structures able to make a sentence/s after thinking, every sentence is good and many bring out the meaning of the word, manages to handle some complex sentence structures able to make a sentence after thinking, sentence has no basic errors, but fails to bring out the meaning of the word, handles only simple sentence structures comes out with a sentence using the word, the sentence conveys the message but not the meaning of the word unable to make a proper sentence using the word, finds it difficult to handle even basic sentence forms and needs help
 

6. LISTENING

 
Criteria for assessment/Marks 5 4 3 2 1
Comprehension and Establishing connection with the spoken text 1. comprehends beyond the spoken text the first time 1. comprehends the text in the first reading but not beyond 1. comprehends the text to an extent 1. unable to comprehend the full text spoken 1. unable to understand even simple sentences
2. identifies key information instantly 2. identifies key information in second reading 2. understands the topic but not key information 2. unable to get the key information but understands the topic generally 2. unable to get even the general idea
3. discovers the meanings of all uncommon/difficult words by guessing strategies 3. discovers the meanings of some uncommon/difficult words by guessing strategies 3. discovers the meanings of very few uncommon/difficult words by guessing strategies 3. needs help to get the meanings of uncommon/difficult words 3. no attempt is made to guess the meanings of difficult words
4. understands standard pronunciation of even the uncommon words 4. understands most of the spoken text and uncommon words 4. unable to understand uncommon words 4. finds it difficult to understand standard pronunciation 4. finds it difficult to understand even simple sentences in standard English
 

7. DEBATE

 
Criteria for assessment/Marks 5 4 3 2 1
Viewpoint/s clearly understood the topic, focuses on view point without digressing understood the topic, focuses on view point but view point is not strong at times understood the topic, not very clear on viewpoint, mixes up at times partly understood the topic, not clear about viewpoint chosen not understood the topic, no viewpoint, no focus
Supporting arguments and Examples uses strong and convincing supporting argument/s, gives
specific example/s
uses effective supporting argument/s, is unable to give convincing example/s always uses not very convincing supporting arguments and is unable to give relevant examples uses weak supporting arguments and is not able to provide examples at all gives no supporting arguments or examples, just says a sentence or two on the topic
Body language/non-verbal clues displays confidence, uses appropriate gestures, makes eye contact always confident, uses right gestures mostly, makes eye contact confident mostly, uses gestures which are acceptable if not highly appropriate not always confident, uses very limited non-verbal clues lacks confidence, does not use non-verbal clues or uses wrong ones
Language and Fluency flawless language with excellent pronunciation, very fluent with only meaningful pauses very good language with no language errors, good pronunciation, very rarely gropes for words language has no noticeable errors, pronunciation is understood by all, gropes for words at times language has a few noticeable errors which need repair, has mother tongue influence, not fluent makes quite a lot of errors in language, pronunciation is difficult to understand, gropes for words
 

8. SPEECH

 
Criteria for assessment/Marks 5 4 3 2 1
Content/Focus/Fluency focussed on topic, speaks fluently, no repetition/self-correction, keeps the audience in rapt attention focussed on topic mostly, speaks fluently, one or two repetition of ideas, keeps the audience generally interested partially focussed, speaks fluently linking simple sentences, stops to gather ideas, slips in a few places not focussed, sentences are too simple, repetition of ideas, manages to express the message somehow lacks focus on topic, finds it difficult to produce basic sentence forms, speaks in bits and pieces
Organisation of ideas/Vocabulary good arresting beginning and a rounded ending, well structured sentences with uncommon phrases/idioms/quotations good beginning sentence but conclusion is not rounded, mostly uses sentences without any special words manages a good beginning but finds it difficult to maintain the tempo, uses very simple sentences manages to send across the message in too simple sentences with errors, has limited vocabulary finds it very difficult to speak a few sentences and needs help always
Body language/non-verbal clues displays confidence, uses appropriate gestures, makes eye contact always confident, uses right gestures mostly, makes eye contact confident mostly, uses gestures which are acceptable if not highly appropriate not always confident, uses very limited non-verbal clues lacks confidence, does not use non-verbal clues or uses wrong ones
Pronunciation excellent pronunciation showing even subtle changes in sounds good pronunciation with no detectable errors pronunciation understood by all although with errors has mother tongue influence in pronunciation pronunciation is not easily understood
 

9. GRAMMAR

Sample Activities and Assessment Rubrics
 
Sample exercise for class 1(Simple Present Tense)
The sentences: 1. Cats drink warm milk/ 2. Dogs guard the house/ 3. A bird has wings/ 4. I have two hands/ 5. A cow gives milk.
 
Cats warm wings. The
house. A I milk.
Drink Dogs milk. A
Cow Two Has Have
Gives Guard hands. Bird
 
Note to Teacher: Give two marks each for every verb in correct position and one mark each for other words in right position. To make the activity simpler, arrange the words of a sentence in the same row. To make it more complex remove capitalisation and full stops.
 
Sample exercise for class 8 (modals)
The sentences: 1. He must be exhausted after such a long flight/ 2. She couldn't hear the announcement as it was noisy/ 3. Can you both close your eyes for a moment?/ 4. You shouldn't worry so much over a simple problem./ 5. Shall we move the sofa to the living room?
 
1. be exhausted he after a flight such long couldn't
2. as announcement she the was hear it noisy shall
3. both you eyes a your moment close for shouldn't
4. so you a worry over much simple problem must
5. move to room we the the living sofa can
 
Note to Teacher: The words in each row (except the last column) belong to the same sentence. But the last column is all jumbled up and students should find out in which sentence each modal has to be used. Give one mark for identification of the right modal and one mark for positioning it right. Give half a mark each for the right positioning of other words.
 

10. ROLE PLAY

 
Criteria for assessment/Marks 5 4 3 2 1
Understanding the given context clearly understands situation, sets the context understands situation but directly gets into role play without setting the context understands the situation takes cue from the partner before initiating understands the situation with a little difficulty, struggles to find ideas does not understand/finds it very difficult to understand the context, needs help
Presentation of the role uses specific words and expressions suitable to the context uses appropriate words and expressions, but not very specific uses general words and expressions not very specific to the situation words and expressions are not always appropriate to the situation uses inappropriate words and expressions, gropes for words
Body Language/non-verbal clues impresses with confidence and highly appropriate gestures, makes eye contact always confident and competent in using gestures, makes eye contact confident mostly, uses gestures which are acceptable not always confident, uses very limited non-verbal clues lacks confidence, does not use verbal clues or uses wrong ones
Language flawless appropriate language with excellent pronunciation very good language, no language errors, good pronunciation no noticeable errors but not flawless, pronunciation understood by all a few noticeable errors, has mother tongue influence in pronunciation makes quite a lot of errors in language, pronunciation is not easily understood
 

11. PROJECT/POSTER MAKING

 
Criteria for assessment/Marks 5 4 3 2 1
Research done extensive research and an in-depth study of the topic, covered popularly known facts and unique ones too done good research and an in-depth study of the topic, has covered all popularly known facts and one or two uncommon ones has done a reasonably good research on the topic, missed some important facts should have researched more, covered some popular facts not covered even the popular facts, very inadequate details
Organisation of ideas/facts clearly organised, enhances reader's understanding, introduction, body and conclusion are very well defined clearly organised, introduction, body and conclusion are defined and the project is easy to follow organised reasonably well, introduction, body and conclusion are defined but ideas lack organisation at times reader could understand the project mostly, introduction, body and conclusion are not clearly defined ideas are placed haphazardly and the project is very difficult to understand
Creativity shown creativity by bringing in his/her thought process to the project, excellent colour scheme attractive to the eyes shown creativity in the project, and suitable colour scheme attractive to the eyes creative mostly, sometimes pictures are overused or underused, generally pleasing to the eye limited creativity in presentation of ideas and pictures, colour scheme is distracting and gaudy at places not shown creativity, the project is just a scrap book of pictures with some information thrown in
Grammar and Spelling flawless language with no errors made errors only in difficult grammar areas and spelling made noticeable errors in grammar and spelling made mistakes in simple grammar areas and spelling the mistakes affect flow and understandability
 

12. LETTER/E MAIL WRITING

 
Criteria for assessment/Marks 5 4 3 2 1
Format
For letter
From/To
Proper salutation
Proper Closing (yours sincerely, etc)
Signature
For e mail
E mail ID
Subject line (a phrase)
all parameters are perfectly in order all parameters are present but not proper at times (example: writes hi/yours lovingly in formal letter, subject line is a sentence etc.) two of the parameters missing/not proper more than two parameters are missing/not proper many of the parameters are missing
Content/Focus understood the context, made it interesting, not deviated from focus, right length understood context, focussed mostly, the letter is of right length generally understood the context, not focussed at times, letter is too long/too short not clearly understood the context, not focussed, length is too long/too short not understood the concept, unable to write a letter for the given context
Paragraph clearly paragraphed the letter helping the readers in navigation, opening line sets the purpose paragraphed the letter with right grouping of ideas paragraphs are not rightly divided, reader is confused at times not paragraphed the main body of the letter no paragraphs, the ideas are haphazard within the chunk
Choice of Language Formal/informal used words and expressions which clearly are formal/informal words and expression are sometimes not completely formal/informal mix up of formal and informal expressions at many places the distinction is not clearly seen unable to use the right expressions
Punctuation right punctuation marks are used in all places punctuation marks are missing in a place or two in the body punctuation marks are missing in salutation, closing, etc punctuation marks are missing/wrongly punctuated generally not used punctuation marks
 
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